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Somaliland is a former British territory located in the northwest region of Somalia in the Horn of Africa. In May of 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Hargeisa, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Somaliland borders Djibouti Ethiopia and Puntland.

British Somaliland


1884 - 1888 Frederick Mercer Hunter (b. 1844 - d. 1898)
1889 - 1893 Edward Vincent Stace
1893 - 1896 Charles William Henry Sealy
1896 - 1897 William Butler Ferris
1897 - 1898 James Hayes Sadler (b. 1851 - d. 1922)

1898 - 1901 James Hayes Sadler (s.a.)
1902 - 1905 Eric John Eagles Swayne (b. 1863 - d. 1929)

8 May 1906 - 1909 Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
Jan 1910 - 1911 Sir William Henry Manning (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
Jul 1911 - 1914 Horace Archer Byatt (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
May 1914 - Oct 1919 Geoffrey Francis Archer (b. 1882 - d. 1964)

Oct 1919 - 17 Aug 1922 Geoffrey Francis Archer (from
1920, Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer) (s.a.)
17 Aug 1922 - 29 Nov 1925 Gerald Henry Summers (b. 1885 - d. 1925)
26 Jan 1926 - 18 Jun 1932 Sir Harold Baxter Kittermaster (b. 1879 - d. 1939)
18 Jun 1932 - 2 Mar 1939 Sir Arthur Salisbury Lawrance (b. 1880 - d. 1965)
2 Mar 1939 - 18 Aug 1940 Vincent Goncalves Glenday (b. 1891 - d. 1970)
29 Mar 1941 - 3 Mar 1943 Arthur Reginald Chater (b. 1896 - d. 1979)
3 Mar 1943 - 15 Nov 1948 Gerald Thomas Fisher (b. 1887 - d. 1965)
1948 - Feb 1954 Gerald Reece (from 1950,
Sir Gerald Reece) (b. 1897 - d. 1985)
Feb 1954 - 1959 Theodore Ouseley Pike (from
1956, Sir Theodore Ouseley Pike) (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
11 Jul 1959 - 26 Jun 1960 Sir Douglas Hall (b. 1909 - d. 2004)

Prime minister (de facto head of state)
26 Jun 1960 - 1 Jul 1960 Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal (b. 1928 - d. 2002)


The 5 regions comprise 18 of the regions of Somalia, roughly the region between Ethiopia, Djibouti and the Gulf of Aden, an area of about 137,600 square kilometres. The population has been estimated at about 3.5 million. The capital of Somaliland is Hargeisa with a population of about 300,000.

Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence, aided by the overwhelming dominance of a ruling clan and economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs.

Formerly the British Somaliland Protectorate, shortly after gaining independence British Somaliland merged with Italian Somaliland in 1960 to form Somalia. The prime minister of British Somaliland, Haji Ibrahim Egal, became a minister in the new republic of Somalia. He became Prime Minister in 1967 but a coup deposed him in 1969. In 1991, after the collapse of the government in Somalia, the territory asserted its independence as the Republic of Somaliland, although it has received little if any international recognition. Egal was elected president in 1993, re-elected in 1998 and remained in power until his death on May 3, 2002. The vice president Dahir Riyale Kahin was declared the new president shortly afterwards.

Since independence Somaliland has been in constant dispute with Puntland over the Sanaag and Sool regions. Colonel Youssuf's Puntlander forces have led several small scale invasions of Somaliland's eastern border. Sanaag is a large percentage of Somalilander territory. Such an annexation of national land could possibly cause the country to become unstable in the unrecognized nation. Sense these border disputes have been taking place President Dahir Riyale Kahin has been silent which has caused suspicions and talks of a presidential recall. It has become unclear to some Somalilander as to where there presidents alliances are and to weather the president believes in the Sovereignty of Somaliland and its people. Amongst all those problems the economy has gotten worse under President Kahin. Saudi Arabia's embargo is attributed to the matter as well.

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